Automobile Pollution and Emission Control Systems

Growing population, extraordinary rise in the number of vehicles and the crowded traffic intersects the symptoms that characterise the main reason for increase in vehicular pollution. Vehicles emit, exhaust chemicals, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen monoxide, sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter. Other constituents of vehicular exhaust include benzene, toluene, xylene, aldehyde etc., which have systemic toxicity on human beings.

Motor vehicles are the considerable sources of pollution that can damage the environment and cause public health issues. Everyone has a stake in limiting the motor vehicle emissions. Carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons are released when fuel is burned in an internal combustion engine and when air/fuel residuals are emitted through the vehicle tailpipe.

The need to control the emissions from automobiles increased the computerization of the automobile. Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are created during the combustion process and are emitted into the atmosphere from the tail pipe. There are also hydrocarbons emitted as a result of vaporization of gasoline and from the crankcase of the automobile.

A comparatively new source of air contamination, and automobile emissions posed different problems than manufacturing discharges such as coal smoke. Before the Industrial Revolution, levels of toxic chemicals in the air were relatively low, but increased due to fossil-fuel production and used dramatically decreased air quality.

Pollutants emitted directly from the vehicles are not the only cause for concern. In warm and sunny days, hydrocarbons react with the oxides of nitrogen to create a secondary pollutant, ozone. Ozone causes coughing, wheezing and shortness of breathe, and can bring permanent lung damage, making it a cause of critical health problems.

When computer systems have progressed, they were able to adjust ignition spark timing as well as operate the other emission controls that were installed on the vehicle. The computer was also capable of monitoring and diagnosing itself. If a fault is seen, then the computer will alert the vehicle operator by illuminating a malfunction indicator lamp. The computer will at the same time record the fault in its memory, so that a technician can later retrieve that fault in the form of a code which will help them to determine the proper repair.

More popular emission control devices installed on the automobile are as follows:

EGR VALVE: The main purpose of the exhaust gas recirculation valve (EGR) valve is to indicate a small amount of exhaust gas into the intake system, this dilutes the air/fuel mixture so as to decrease the combustion chamber temperature. Excessive combustion chamber temperature creates oxides of nitrogen, which is a major pollutant. EGR valve is the most effective method of controlling oxides of nitrogen.

CATALYTIC CONVERTER: The catalytic converter looks like a muffler. It is located in the exhaust system ahead of the muffler. Automotive emissions are mainly controlled in three ways, one is to promote complete combustion so that there are less number of products. The second is to reintroduce excessive hydrocarbons back into the engine for combustion and the third is to provide an additional area for the oxidation or combustion to occur. This additional area is called a catalytic converter.

AIR PUMP: Combustion requires fuel, oxygen and heat. Without any one of the three, combustion cannot occur. This combustion will not produce any power, but it will reduce excessive hydrocarbon emissions. There are times under normal conditions, such as deceleration, when the fuel content is excessive. Under these conditions we would like to shut off the air injection system. The only maintenance that is required is a careful inspection of the air pump drive belt.
PCV VALVE: The purpose of the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system, is to take the vapors produced in the crankcase during the normal combustion process, and redirecting them to the air/fuel intake system to be burned during combustion. These vapors dilute the air/fuel mixture so they have to be carefully controlled and metered in order to not affect the performance of the engine.

CHARCOAL CANISTER: A charcoal canister is used to trap the fuel vapors. The fuel vapors adhere to the charcoal, until the engine is started, and engine vacuum can be used to draw the vapors into the engine, so that they can be burned along with the fuel/air mixture. This system requires the use of a sealed gas tank filler cap. This cap is so important to the operation of the system, that a test of the cap is now being integrated into many state emission inspection programs.

Proper maintenance of car and truck emission control systems not only limits harmful emissions, but also can improve fuel efficiency and vehicle performance extending the life of the vehicle. Care in storing and handling gasoline and other solvents also reduces evaporative losses to the atmosphere.

How to Get What You Want by Bartering Without Paying Taxes

If you're thinking of starting a business, one of your challenges may be to obtain expertise in areas that you nothing very little about. They may include how to create a website, how to set up an online shopping cart, and how to deliver your product. The lack of know-how can be a vexing problem because new businesses seldom have the resources to pay for these services. So, what can you do?

The obvious thing would be to figure out how to do it yourself. This is something that many entrepreneurs do. Some of them have a talent for fixing things. Others spend an inordinate amount of time searching for and learning about the solutions, and then try to put them into practice. Unfortunately, things are seldom as simple as they seem. In addition, few people are able to explain what they mean in that are as simple as they claim.

So, what can you do? If you need the expertise of another, but can't afford the time or the money to get it, what choice do you have?
The easy answer is to barter for it. Bartering has been around for longer than money itself. It's the means of exchanging your skills for someone else's. On the British program, the Antiques Roadshow, you still occasionally hear stories of how someone came into the possession of a painting or a watch because a second party needed to pay a bill, but didn't have the money.

That illustrates the principle of bartering, but it's also useful for understanding how to barter without having to pay taxes on it. Let me say at this point that you should not rely on this article to help you avoid pay taxes. You need to seek the advice of an expert in tax preparation. But, it's worth thinking about what bartering is considered to be taxable and, by default, which isn't.

The American Internal Revenue Service describes taxable bartering with an example, that of a plumber doing repair work for a dentist in exchange for dental services. This is the key to the entire issue. If you exchange your core activities for the core activities of another, then it's considered to be taxable. By implication, however, if you provide a product or service to someone else that is not part of your business, then it isn't considered to be taxable.
So, how could you obtain that degree of expertise without using someone who sold it as a product or service? And the answer to that is to look*for people who have multiple skills that are outside of those they use in their business.

For example, how many people do you know who build websites as a hobby, but whose full-time work is in a company? How many people do you know who work on their own cars, but work for a firm that is outside of the automotive industry.

And what about students. They're primary "job" is to study; but many of them have talents in a wide range of areas. Look for the hidden talents of others, and think about how you could have your needs met by trading their non-core skills for your needs. Likewise, think about how you could help others in a similar way.

Improve Your Truck or SUV With a Suspension Lift put a lot of time and money into keeping your truck or SUV looking good and riding smoothly. Why not add enhance your pride in the work you've done with a suspension lift. Suspension lift kits add additional height to your truck or SUV to increase fender clearance and allow for larger tires. If you want to take your truck or SUV off-roading or you just want a new look for you vehicle, lifting your suspension can do the trick.

If you are a DIY kind of person, then you probably view working on your truck or SUV as a long-term project; and purchasing a suspension lift kit so that you can carry on with the improvements you've already makes sense. However, you don't want to go to any old place to make this purchase. You want products of the highest quality at the lowest price. And you want to be sure that the parts will last for a reasonable amount of time.

This may seem like a tall order, but it need not be. Indeed, now is a great time to be in DIY. There are many shops that cater specifically to the needs of such persons. You can find suspension lift kits and other repair parts and mechanisms at many online stores. This makes a huge difference in being able to get the right parts to do the job you have in mind. You no longer have to limit yourself to doing little touch up here and there, or minor operations such as changing tires or installing a new stereo. You can now do almost everything an auto shop can do. It's just a matter of getting the equipment you need.

The web has changed our abilities. With the proliferation of information on the worldwide web of all kinds of stuff, it should come as no surprise that more and more people are taking on DIY projects that involve the most complex kind of work. Jobs like suspension lifts used to be the exclusive purview of the expert mechanic. Now this kind of work can be done by self-taught amateurs who want to improve the look or the functionality of their truck or SUV. We can not only learn how to do the job of the mechanic, we can shop like one as well. If you are a DIY enthusiasts, you now enjoy all of the logistical support an expert automotive dealer or repairman may receive.
Fortunately, the online shops that offer such goods and services are not that difficult to find. If you are interested in purchasing a suspension lift kit for example, all you need do is go to Google and enter 'suspension lift kits' and a great number of online shops will appear on your screen. This will enable you to compare price and value. It will also enable you to determine the record of customer satisfaction of each shop. This is a great way to shop and save!

It's Not What You Do, It's Who You Are That Counts
For many people any chances of improving their circumstances are doomed before they even begin. It is not that their challenge is necessarily any more difficult than some one else's. It is not that the world is against them or that they don't have the resources. It is often the simple matter of their mindset.

As Henry Ford once famously remarked "Whether you believe you can or whether you believe you can't, you're right". Mr Ford had already discovered the importance of mindset in getting the results you want from life and there are things we can all learn from his story.

Henry Ford had a vision, a dream of building automobiles on a production line in the same way that cattle were processed in a meat packing plant. The work would come to the operative who would perform the same task over and over again, on each automobile that came to him. By so doing he would become an expert at the task and as a result be extremely efficient at it.

There was a problem with Henry Ford's dream though. When he approached the banks for finance to start his business he was told. "Henry, it's just a fad these horseless carriages and it won't last. I can't risk the banks money on such frivolity"

Henry Ford had done his homework though and foresaw the age of the motor car. He believed he could and he persisted until he succeeded. Today the Ford Motor Company has produced millions of these frivolous ideas and made billions of dollars in the process. It has opened factories and sales dealerships across the world as well as creating the circumstances for hundreds of other businesses to grow. Paint shops, panel shops and auto repairs are just a few of the industries that Mr Ford's visions brought to the world, creating jobs, business and revenues as well as giving mobility to millions of people everywhere.
Let's now imagine if Henry ford had not followed his beliefs, what the result would have been. Yes it is almost certain that somebody else would have come up with the idea of the production line and that they would have been successful in implementing it. I would invite you to also consider the cost of the delays. Not just to the automotive industry but also to every other factory owner who adopted production line technology and thinking.

I am quite sure that Henry Ford never envisioned all of the benefits and spin off products that were a result of his can do attitude. I am also absolutely sure that you have no idea what the consequences are of not starting whatever it is you want to start. The question is this. Is the price that the world will pay as a result of you not following your dreams, enough to give you the courage and determination to follow your own "frivolity" to completion? I would strongly suggest that you have the strength to find out because "Whether you believe you can or whether you believe you can't, you are always right"
Michael Noone is a communication skills authority and NLP trainer living in Thailand with his partner Evelyne Draper.